ATP production brief

04-04  Source: Network gathering  Views:7 


ATP production brief

How is ATP?

What is ATP

  • ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate, is a nucleotide consisting of adenine nucleoside and three in chain it bound phosphate groups.
  • ATP is the main source of energy in all living organisms and is needed for many processes in the body.
  • The phosphorus bonds are connected to each other very energetic and anhydride, ie dehydration.
  • If ATP hydrolysis by corresponding enzymes, ie by addition of water, split again, so the previously stored energy is released and available again.
  • What remains is then ADP, which is used for further ATP production again.

As the ATP production works

  • The ATP production takes place in two different ways, which substrate chain and oxidative phosphorylation.
  • In the substrate-enzyme-catalyzed reaction takes place, in which a phosphate group from another molecule, such as in glycolysis 1,3-Bisphosphatglycerat (BPG) on an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is transmitted. The BPG is a phosphate donor in this case.
  • Oxidative phosphorylation is composed of two basic processes. Electron transport chain or respiratory chain and the Chemiosmose.
  • In the former, electrons of NADH and FADH 2 molecules that have been previously formed in glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation and in the citric acid cycle, by the protein complexes I - IV directed by the energy protons are pumped out of the inner matrix of the mitochondrion in the intermembrane space.
  • This produces an H + concentration gradient and a charge imbalance between matrix and intermembrane space, as a result, to diffuse in the second process, the protons through the ATP synthase channel protein back into the matrix. It is synthesized from the protein complex ATP from ADP and P i (phosphate radicals).
  • The reason why the synthesis of ATP prolonged electron transport chain is adjusted, is that an immediate energy release of NADH would be exergonic. The energy released could not be controlled and cached. Therefore, in sub-steps the energy is used to establish a gradient.

So the ATP production works in its basic features, when under the aerobic, so-using oxygen, cellular respiration with preceding glycolysis per Glykosemolekül up to 32 molecules of ATP are formed. Two each of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, 28 in the ATP synthesis during the respiratory chain.

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