Election: first vote and second vote - the differences explained simply

02-15  Source: Network gathering  Views:3 

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Election: first vote and second vote - the differences explained simply

The election is pure mathematics.

The election is a complicated process.

The first vote elect the deputies

  • One can explain the general elections and the differences between the first vote and second vote if necessary in approach simply: Each voter has two votes.
  • With the first vote to select the candidate of your choice. The candidate with the relatively highest number of votes shall be declared elected and may sit in the Bundestag. He gets a direct mandate.
  • The second vote, you place a party for the country list. In their evaluation only parties come into play, which received more than 4.9% of all second votes in the entire electoral area or have won a seat in more than three constituencies.
  • Thus, the election is not decided yet but. About the composition of the Bundestag decides a complex calculation method in which the ratio of the primary vote is weighted to the second votes.

The second voice is more important than the first

  • The second vote determines the proportion of votes the parties in parliament after the election. It is more important than the first vote since it decides which faction or coalition of parties in parliament has the most Stismmen, which then is the Chancellor elected.
  • With the second vote to choose the country's list of your desired party established with all of this party and specified in the order applicants.
  • The ratio of second votes determines the level of MP mandates, of which the direct mandates are deducted.

The election is based on a combined suffrage

  • If you want to know more: The Federal Elections Act combines the majority vote with proportional representation according to d'Hondt (Belgian mathematician). The MPs are elected half by majority vote and proportional representation. This explains why you as a voter two votes.
  • Now it gets complicated. One can but it hardly represent. Really understand it do not only mathematicians, Bundestag anyway.
  • Step 1: At the federal level is calculated first by the highest averages method d'Hondts how eliminates many mandates throughout the country on the list compounds of the various parties. The various regional lists of a party may be joined together. The total number of parliamentary seats is based on, so not only the vacant by proportional representation principle half.
  • Step 2: In a second step is calculated at the combined lists, the breakdown of this party entitled Bundestag seats on its various national lists. Whereas it is understood by the second votes cast for that party in the various federal states. From their ratio is calculated, account for how many of the total of this party of the seats allocated to their individual regional lists.
  • Step 3: As more and the total number of parliamentary seats is based on who won in the constituencies seats must be removed in a third step of the thus determined number of seats. Obtain a party in a state in the general election because of the primary vote more seats than it is entitled to due to the second votes, it may keep the extra seats. These are in the opposition little beloved overhang seats.
  • In USA it is as simple. There is selected who has the majority. Done. But there are just only the United States.
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