Draw children to the octet rule.
The octet rule is chemistry associate
If you understand the terms of chemistry, you will be able to better explain the octet rule children:
- The basic building block of matter is the atom. If the word atom is translated from the Greek, it means "unzerschneidbar". The importance of "Atom" So announced already that this last detail, that make up matter, is indivisible. Scientists discovered in the early 20th century, the atoms of a sheath made, the "electron" surrounds a core and a plurality of particles called.
- It further stated that these electrons are negatively charged, while the nucleus is positively charged, whereby an attractive force arises. Also, the nucleus was further investigated and the scientists realized that it is made up of other, different parts. It stipulated that on the one hand as the positively charged protons - must be named so the "neutral strong (hadron)" - ie the "first stabilizer Lien" and the other as a neutron. Who deals with chemistry, must take these numbers as given.
- to expose the atoms to a mass together, is the name of this mass "molecule". Molecules are thus chemical compounds in which hold atoms together. A molecule may consist of neutral parts of radicals (unpaired electron) or ions (electrically charged because the electrons no longer neutral but are in disequilibrium) exist. Scientists call the different types of molecules "molecular structure".
- Molecules consist usually of different elements together such. B. H2 = for water or CH4 for methane. They may consist of oxygen but also of one element such. B. 02. The arrangement of atoms within a molecule is based on a specific chemical compound. In chemistry, these elements and atomic arrangements are examined in more detail.
- All chemical elements are in accordance with their "core charge" of a given order number. Dividing the elements according to their atomic (atomic number) and their characteristics a, arise "periods", in turn, in addition to - be divided and major groups. On this basis, scientists developed the "periodic table of elements" that are called abbreviated PSE.
- The octet rule is usually used for the main groups. Main groups of certain categories of, established by scientists Periodic Table. Since it is the member main groups of the 2nd period in the octet rule, include fluorine, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon, ie the so-called P-block, as well as S-block it. Elements of this group in their ground state, such as noble gases, a neon electron configuration with eight outer electrons (valence electrons). Usually atoms are not surrounded by eight electrons, but with less.
So the octet rule is understandable
- Atoms are eager to share electrons in such a way that in the outer shell are 8 electrons. include for the periodic table to the z. B. nitrogen, fluorine, carbon and oxygen, which is absolutely necessary, because they possess the appropriate bond order for them missing electrons
- Exceptions are the noble gas configurations, because they are unable to take up bonds to other elements. Atoms higher standing periods, such. As phosphorus or sulfur, fill d orbitals (wave functions of individual electrons) to electrons, so that even there are more than 8 electrons in the outer electron.
- In order for the octet rule rises couple some atoms several atomic bonds per se. The binding CO 2 z. B. has two "double bonds", so that the two oxygen atoms can satisfy the octet rule as well as the carbon atom.
Draw children the octet rule on
- Explain children connect water. Characters do so on a water molecule, by drawing a larger, blue oxygen atom connected to two smaller, different-colored hydrogen atoms.
- Explain with appropriate point assignments on your drawing that oxygen element in the outer shell has 6 electrons and two for availability. To fill the cup, it needs two more electrons.
- Ask the children what the oxygen element now does: It connects to the two hydrogen atoms. Now there are 8 electrons to the shell so that the tray is full. A water molecule thus consists of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen: H2O.
- Clarify the connection to a second drawing. Mark two circles, the center surround a core. In the inner circle are two electrons (oxygen) and on the outside. 6
- Narrow two smaller circles on the larger outer circle, which each have a core at the center (water element) Where each the two smaller circles on the larger andoggen, draw two differently colored electron. In order for the octet rule is satisfied.