Properties of acids simply explained

03-26  Source: Network gathering  Views:1 

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Properties of acids simply explained

Acids are important reagents in chemistry.

Basic information on the structure of atoms

  • Atoms consist of a core, which is positively charged and a shell, which is negatively charged. Only when these two charges perfectly cancel each other, we also speak of an "atom".
  • The negative charges of the shell are of certain elementary particles called electrons caused. The number and arrangement of these particles determines a majority of all chemical properties of the atom, such as magnetism.
  • Loses or wins an atomic electron, so it gets an electric charge and is now called the "Ion".

Acids and bases by Brønsted

  • Contrary to popular belief, there is no fixed definition of what acids and bases are. Rather, there were several different swine-base concepts throughout history. However, most commonly used today is the definition by Brønsted and Lowry. One speaks in this context of "Brønsted acid".
  • According to this definition, an acid is a molecule that can deliver a positively charged hydrogen ion. In chemical notation, this is "H +". The process by which splits off this particle, called "proteolysis".
  • A base is a molecule that can absorb a H + ion.

Some properties of acids

  • Not all acids are identical. The biggest difference between acids is how easy they make an H + ion. This value is referred to as acid strength or K s value. If the acid is a high acid strength, it is also still proposed for H + ions when many are already present in the solution. If the acidity is low, so in this situation, nothing will happen.
  • Among other interesting properties of acids include the fact that an acid after being protolyzed, that is, a H + ion did becomes the base. Hydrochloric acid, for example protolysed in Cl -. One of the characteristics of this so-called chloride ion that it is a very weak base. Generally speaking, that a strong acid is always protolysed to a weak base. Conversely, a strong base to a weak acid.
  • How acidic is a solution can be determined via the pH. The pH is a measure of the concentration of H + ions. The higher the concentration, the more acidic the solution. However, since these concentrations may vary very widely, ie from 1 mol / l up to 0.00000000000001 mol / l, should be collected not directly. Instead, it calculates the pH-value which is the negative logarithm to the base 10th The logarithm to base 10 of 1 is 0. The logarithm to the base 10 of 0.0000000000001 is -14. However, since the pH value is the negative logarithm, is from 0 (very acidic), respectively 14 (very basic).
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