Surrealism shows things in a different perspective.
Surrealist influences - Miró "Catalan Landscape"
The Spanish painter Joan Miró (1893-1983) is one of the most important artists of surrealism. In 1924 he joined this art. Earlier he was a friend of poets and painters, who formed the core of the Surrealist movement around André Breton. Miró's pictures have not only surrealist, but also cubist features. A characteristic feature is the use of biomorphic objects that living beings were modeled.
One of his most famous surrealist images is the "Catalan Landscape (The Hunter)". The picture was taken in 1923/24, the time at which André Breton his first "Surrealist Manifesto" written. This painting is divided into two color-separated halves. The viewer sees a composition loosely arranged motifs. This image structure stands out clearly from the previous straighter, Cubist-influenced forms. All motives are connected by a thin line frame. It is as if they were floating free in space, which suggests a certain lightness and fragility. None of them seems to be in the foreground. The viewer can soak up the image as a single work and discover their individual perspective.
The subtitle "The Hunter" refers to the main motif in Miró's paintings. The hunters found on the left in the picture as a stick figure with a triangular head. Discoverable he is both his mustache and on what he holds in his hands. In his left hand he carries a gun, in the right a rabbit. However, the references to realistic objects are so subtle that the figure is barely identified at first glance as a hunter. Miró's imagery is marked by symbols that do not illustrate the real world, but are beyond concrete interpretation. In this way, the picture is a typical example of surrealism. His pictures have to make an immediate impact on the viewer without a complete interpretation possible.
Surrealistic paintings by Picasso - "Crucifixion"
Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) is one of the most famous painters of the 20th century. His long creative phase has pictures of different styles spawned. Picasso's relationship to Surrealism is controversial, but some consider him a forerunner of this artistic movement. Although Picasso avoids in his works those fantastic elements that are characteristic of Surrealism. However, its symbolic iconography and its preferred use classical myths have surrealism to related features.
One of the works of this surrealist phase is the "Crucifixion" (oil on canvas, 1930). Unlike Miró the picture with figures, colors and shapes is completely filled. This is partly the reason for the strong effect of many works by Picasso. A viewer feels at first almost overwhelmed by the violence of the imagery. In the second moment, he must try to distinguish individual motives of each other. Central is the white figure of Christ on the cross, which already color different from the rest of the image. Despite the religious background the image has no religious significance and therefore no blasphemous according uniform opinion of the art critic. Much more obvious is at second glance the general presentation of pain and anguish. This is recognizable thanks to the open, pained mouths of all figures. This includes the representation of Mary Magdalene, which is at the foot of the cross and is also white. Typical of the surrealism is the displacement and distortion of us known logic. Top left of the picture is the sponge which was soaked with vinegar. However, the sponge is almost half the size of the figure on the cross. He is, therefore, at first glance, not as the recognized what he represents. Rather, it acts as a great stone what the symbol of violence only brings more clearly expressed. However, the viewer allows for different interpretations, there is another interpretation: If the scene is created from the perspective of the Crucified out the sponge in whose eyes can much huge act than anything else around him. In this way, Picasso also adds hallucinatory elements into his work with. This is the dream world of surrealism already very close.
Epitome of Surrealism - Tanguy "Day of inertia"
Yves Tanguy (1900-1955) is a French painter who can incorporate all characteristics of surrealism in his paintings. They differ from the garish colors of Picasso and also by the biomorphic figures Miró. They often contain only a few objects, causing the effect of a special airiness and lightness. In his painting "Day of inertia" from 1937 initially striking the contrast between background and foreground eye. The properties are clear contours and yet not clearly identifiable. One of them is, according to critics is a horse with knight and gun. The second figure reveals a slug-like tower with a second fighter on closer examination. Much more important than these specific identifications, however, texture, color and shape of the image. The objects are arranged in front of a background consisting of soft lines and colors. There is no clear, separate lines, but everything flows seamlessly into one another. The more clearly the objects stand apart from, said Tanguy cut the number of hard, intense colors. Primarily he used bright, bluish and reddish hues, but the effect never obtrusive. Whoever loves this painting as an art print on the wall, will discover new possibilities of interpretation in any consideration. On the other hand it can also just soak up the colors and shapes in their structure. The image, matching the title suggests no concrete interpretation and also leaves nothing to. The interpretation as a fight scene with two fighters is just one of many. In the foreground the individual effect is on the viewer.
Pictures beyond the realism - Dalí's "Persistence of Memory"
Salvador Dalí (1904-1989) has become synonymous with Surrealist painting. Characteristic features of his pictures are the preferred processing of the subconscious, dreamlike and unreal. The melting clocks as the main detail of his painting "The Persistence of Memory" has a characteristic recognition. It was created in 1931 and is one of the most famous surrealist images.
A viewer who looks at the oil painting, initially recognizes the three deliquescent pocket watches. In the background there is a Catalan marine and rocky landscape. On the clock left in the picture sits a fly that is at first glance hardly recognizable. However, it is responsible for the symbolism of the image, because it is the only living object. Thus it symbolizes the time that flies in the truest sense of the word. Still further to the left you will see another, nor closed clock that is eaten by ants. This brings the component of decay and transience and ensures an oppressive atmosphere. In addition to these distorted, yet recognizable motifs arises in the middle of the image of the peak of abstraction. The clock in the center melts to the likewise totally blurred face of the artist, shown here in profile. Without this background knowledge, this detail is no longer identifiable. The more it characterizes the surrealistic, unreal overall atmosphere of the image. The inspiration for the work was awarded Dalí from everyday life in the form of a hot, zerlaufenen Camembert. The theme of the hard and soft interested him so much that it inspired him to this composition. Just the seemingly hard and solid objects are presented here as a soft and ephemeral. The us familiar resistance of things will be provided in this way in question.
Réné Magritte - Surrealism in the guise of realism
Particularly exciting is art where it as something completely turns out different from what they seem to be. Epitome of this phenomenon is probably the most famous painting of surrealism. This is the 1828/29 resulting picture "The wind and the song" from Réné Magritte (1898-1967). Who sees it, will not hold it at first glance for a surrealistic composition. Everything can be seen in the picture, is an oversized pipe. Under the whistle is written: "Ceci n'est pas une pipe." In German: "This is not a pipe." This text provides initially for confusion, because the object is clearly identifiable as a whistle. Magritte makes with this picture but in a hasty interpretation attention. He points out that an object itself is not identical to its image. These are different things that can trigger each different associations. This also includes the word "whistle", which means something else than the object and its pictorial representation.
Even more clearly characterizes Magritte this phenomenon in his painting "The Key to Dreams" (1930). Here the viewer sees six items, all of which were recorded on a kind of slate. Among them is a term that is not true, however. Under the image of a ladies' shoe, the term "la lune" or in translation "the moon". This shows the artist once again that there is a difference between the meaning of the sitter, the image and the associated word. According Magritte the names of the articles are not intended to explain them, but only to accompany it. He breaks through in this way so familiar to us everyday logic. For this reason, the painting should be categorized as a work of surrealism, despite the realistic representation.